Mongolia is truly one of the world’s last undiscovered travel destinations and the safest country to visit. It is a land where you can experience wide-open spaces, cobalt blue skies, forests, deserts, crystal clear rivers and lakes, and the traditional hospitality of the nomads. Permanent dwellings are few and far between, fences even fewer and the land is owned by the people, like one large National Park. As a tremendous destination to experience the outdoors, Mongolia also boasts of unique history dating back to the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan. Simply put, it is a land of adventure, horses, nomads, and blue sky.

Practical Information

POPULATION: 3.0 million
AREA: 1,566,000 sq km (610,740 sq mi)
LAND BOUNDARIES: 8,158 km, with Russia 3,485 km and with China 4,673 km
AVERAGE ALTITUDE: 1,580 m above sea-level
TERRAIN: Vast semi-desert and desert plains, mountains in west and southwest,
Gobi Desert in southeast
PEOPLE: Khalkha Mongols (86%), Kazaks (6%), about a dozen other Mongolian
ethnic groups
LANGUAGES: Mongolian, Kazakh, Russian, Chinese. English is widely spoken in the
RELIGIONS: Tibetan Buddhism, Muslim, Christian and Shamanism
CLIMATE: Average summer temperature +20’C, average winter temperature -26’C, average rainfall 200-220 mm. Winter lasts from November to late April, Spring from May through June, Summer from July through September.
POLITICAL SYSTEM: Parliamentary republic. President elected for four years. Present President Elbegdorj Tsahia, elected in 2013. Prime Minister appointed by State Great Khural for four years. Present Prime Minister Mr. Erdenebat Jargaltulga was appointed in 2016.
LEGISLATURE: State Great Khural (Parliament), unicameral with 76 members elected for four years. The last election was held in 2016.
JUDICIAL SYSTEM: Mongolian judicial system consists of Constitutional Court , Supreme Court, Aimag and capital city courts, soum and district courts.
STATE STRUCTURE: Mongolia is a unitary state and divided administratively into Aimags (21) and a capital city; Aimags are subdivided into soums; soums into bags; and a capital city into districts; districts into khoroos.
NATIONAL CURRENCY: Tugrik (MNT), about MNT 2657 = USD 1 (by JAN 2019)
FISCAL YEAR: January 1 – December 31
MAIN ENTRY POINTS: Chinggis Khaan (airport in Ulaanbaatar ), Sukhbaatar (railway station on Mongolian-Russian border) and Zamyn Uud (railway station on Mongolian-Chinese border)
SEA ACCESS: Tianjin/China (1,344 km) and Nakhodka/Russia (4,037 km)
PUBLIC HOLIDAYS: December 31- January 1 – New Year 3 days,
in January/February – Mongolian New Year (Tsagaan Sar),
June 1 – Mother and Child day,
July 11-13 – National Holiday (Naadam festival)
TIME: Add 8 hours to Greenwich Mean Time
NORMAL WORKING HOURS: 09.00-13.00 and 14.00-18.00
VISA ARRANGEMENTS: Visa shall be issued by MongoliaEmbassies and Diplomatic Missions as well as Honorary consuls of Mongolia , or can be obtained at the airport at a cost of US$53 but must be accompanied by an invitation.

Nomad lifestyle

Mongolia is one of the nomad countries in the world. Mongolian nomadic people move into place to place 2-4 times a year.

Since the Hunnu Empire Mongolians raising their five domestic animals. It is including sheep, horse, cow, camel, and goat in the broad region of forest, steppe and Gobi desert. Eespecially they respect their horses. Mongolians see their horse is their best friend. Mongolia has 4 seasons. Mongolian nomadic people move into place to place 2-4 times a year as well as it is depending on livestock’s pasture. Mongolian nomad people always following their livestock. Because livestock knows where is the best pasture. Mongolian herders live in Mongolian traditional dwelling (covered felt) Ger.

Mongolian five animals.

Mongolian five domestic animals are sheep, horse, cow, camel, and goat. Mongolia is the land of livestock. Now in Mongolia has over 55.9 million livestock, including 24.9 million sheep, 23.6 million goats, 3.8 million cattle, 3.3 million horses and 367.9 thousand Bactrian camels.

On these five animals depends the prosperity of the country. All flocks of sheep include goats, only shepherds can really explain why. The sheep provides meat, wool and leather, nowadays its milk little taken. The goat provides milk and company for the sheep, its fresh is seldom eaten. The cow is eaten and milked, and its hide provides leather often the yak is used instead of the cow, or else together with cattle. The she- yak’s milk is fatter. The yak seems more active than the cow, and as one approaches a mixed herd, the yak’s – hairy as terriers – are always the first to run off, lofting their- feathery tails like pennons. Also there is hainag, a yak cow hybrid. (The reverse hybrid, from a Mongolian bull with a female yak, is possible, but not used.)The male hainag is strong, stronger than either parent. It is burly beast with hair longer than its mother’s and shorter than its father’s. The female produces more milk than the female of either parental stock. But its calf, the ortom, is a weakling, and breeding is not taken other. The horse is kept as a mount and for milk. Mares must be in foal a great part of the year. Several times in journey you will come across twenty or thirty horses crowded, noses together close to Ger They are waiting their turn for milking. Mongols say they milk better if you let the foal start them. The means of transport is the camel. His wool warm to the rider, is taken also. But he is not eaten, nor his female milked, save perhaps on the edge of the desert where no other livestock viable. Camels are formidable. The males, when their minds are on mating, foam at the mouth and fight. Camel herds are usually smaller than those of other animals. Camels and coats are shorn but once a year. Sheep sometimes twice. A Mongolian sheep gives three or four pounds of wool a year.


Weather & Climate Mongolia is located in the Northern Hemisphere temperate zone. Situated at an average altitude of 1500 m above the sea level separated from the oceans, surrounded by high mountain chains that are blocking the wet winds, Mongolia has an extreme continental climate. The winter continues long with cold temperature but summer is hot and not so long. Winter lasts from November to late April, Spring May through June. Summer continued from July through to September. The average summer temperature is +20c (+65F) . Winter is -20c (-13F) . The wind is 1.5-4.5m/s. The average rainfall 200-220 mm. In Mongolia there are 250 sunny days a year, often with clear cloudless skies. Therefore Mongolia is known to the world as a country of “Blue Sky”


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